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 Chapter 17 Discussion Question

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Mrs.Gupton
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PostSubject: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Thu Nov 03, 2011 4:53 pm

The Enlightenment was perhaps the most influential period of European history because it causes and influences the nationals of the French Revolution. What were some of the Enlightenment ideas that lead to radical nationalist thought in France during the late 1700s?
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Katie L



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 7:13 pm

I'll take this one.

The political ideas of Montesquieu were influential to French Nationalism because he thought government should have division of power. The French monarchs at the time were all absolute monarchs, so for many of their subjects this would be an appealing idea since it would give them more say in their government. The new democratic governments that came about in this time period, not just the French, were inspired by Montesquieu’s political philosophy. Another philosophy that contributed to the French nationalist thought and their revolution was Rousseau’s belief that society is more important than individuals, which favors a less absolute view of government. Just one person, even a monarch, shouldn’t be more important than the will of the majority, and society should be able to make decisions democratically, as a whole.

Question: what were the philosophes' views on organized religion and how was Deism better for what them, given what they wanted out of religion?


Last edited by Katie L on Mon Nov 14, 2011 7:32 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Leah Armstrong



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 7:20 pm

Got It!

May of the philosophes did not like organized religion, but some of them did. The ones that did not practice something called Deism. This was the belief that nature was rational, so the god that created nature must also be rational. They believed that god merely created then moved on. This fit their need for rationalization. The philosophes were overly rational and in their everyday life everything had to be explained. They could not accept the fact that something was not rational and could not be explained, so this religion fit all their needs.

Question: Rococo and Neoclassical art were the styles that came about in the enlightenment. In what ways are they different and which one was more respected, and why?
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ElviraDzafic



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 7:33 pm

MY QUESTIONNNNNNNN.

Rococo art varied from Neoclassical art in very simple ways. First off, Neoclassical art was more of still paintings, such as architecture. There was usually not plenty of emotion or playfulness in neoclassical art either; it was just like a basic picture so to speak. The rise of neoclassicism was based on the popularity of the city of Rome; as it grew, so did neoclassicism. Many aristocrats admired them on “the Grand Tour”. Neoclassical painters also used scenes of heroism and self-sacrifice from ancient history to show morals or lessons. Others intentionally wanted political criticism; they’d display the concept of separate spheres of men and women, and also the corruption of the French monarchial government. They were pretty much dying for attention. While the art had some negativity on occasion, the architectures of neoclassicism were transformed to monuments to the Enlightenment and Revolution, such as the Pantheon in Paris. Because Neoclassicism brought negativity and was rather bland, Rococo art was the more respected type. Rococo art was so lighthearted and careless, and it also portrayed aristocracy. It was favored by Louis XV; he had two women be painted by Rococo artists. Rococo art was spread across Europe; it was even applied to public buildings and churches. Artists would often display the aristocracy in fetes galantes, or scenes of elegant parties on lush gardens. They showed how carefree both men and women were, and how much they enjoyed life.



HMMMM,........
Why did the philosophes like England so much? What was so special about it?


Last edited by ElviraDzafic on Mon Nov 14, 2011 7:50 pm; edited 1 time in total
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AmandaMiller



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 7:34 pm

MINE!


Several philosophers including Voltaire liked England so much because they were the first country to really figure out that even the monarchy needs limitations. They realised that ifa monarch didnt have any rules,he may go crazy and do things completely against the people's will. England also had a very organized government. They knew that eberyone had to work together to ensure a country's success, unlike Rome's government. Also, Voltaire praised the English trade system and compared it to countries like France that didn't have such animpressive system.



Who were the Plebians (mentioned in Voltaire's Letters of England) and why did the Roman senate dispise them so much?
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Ashten2014



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:14 pm

MINE!

The plebians were the working class of Rome. The Roman senate thought of them as wild beast and therfore sent them fight in foreign wars in fear that if given the opprtunity they would come after them. so the employment of the plebians in foreign wars seemed like a simple solution to keep them out of the administration, since the Roman senate was basically afraid of them. This seperation of people is what voltaire believes to be the flaw of the Roman government.


What was the annexation of Crimea, and what did it do to the countries is involved?
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Troy Palmer



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:29 pm

Mine

The treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji brought an end to the war between the ottomans and russia. Russia recieved a direct outlet to the black sea, and free navigation of its waters, and free access through the bospourus. Crimea became an independent state, which Catherine the Great quickly annexed in 1783. also, catherine was made the protector of the ottoman empire's orthodox christians.










Who were the enlightenment despots and what were the contributions?


Last edited by Troy Palmer on Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:35 pm; edited 1 time in total
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TylerPhelps50



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:35 pm

Mine

One was Joseph II of Austria. He became Holy Roman emperor and gave reforms an ideological edge reflecting utilitarian theories of the Enlightenment. He also abolished slavery and serfdom. Published a Patent of Tolerance and favored enlightened despotism.
Frederick the Great of Prussia. Was devoted to building Prussia into a strong state, established a universal religious toleration and granted freedom of the press.
Catherine the Great of Russia. She wanted to "westernize" Russia, established free economic society and encouraged foreign investment in economically underdeveloped areas. Also encouraged education for nobles and middle class.







Who were important neoclassical artists and what were their important creations/works?


Last edited by TylerPhelps50 on Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:52 pm; edited 2 times in total
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sumi5

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:43 pm

Dibs on Tyler's question.



Neoclassical artist tended to not show movement in their paintings or sculptures. It was more concerned with public life. Works such as, Jacques- Louis David’s Oath of the Horatii used ancient republican themes the 1780’s to emphasize the corruption of the French monarchial government. He also painted scenes of the ancient Roman Republic. Antoine Houden was a sculptor of stone. He specifically made sculptures of philosophers, inventors and political figures of the Enlightenment.



My Question:
How were women viewed during the Enlightenment? What roles did they play in intellectual society?


Last edited by sumi5 on Mon Nov 14, 2011 9:12 pm; edited 2 times in total
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Jessica_Johnson



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:45 pm

mine!
women during the enlightenment differed depending on social class and region. depending on education, some women were given more opportunities than ever before. women especially in france helped to promote careers of the philsophes. salonnieres such as madame geoffrin gave them access to useful social and political contacts and a receptive environment. Ladies such as Madame de pompadour, mistress to king louis xv was a member of the french court and advised the king on his decisions. voltaires mistress, countess emile de chatelet was a mathematician and helped him write elements of the philosophy of newton. views of women in this era different from rousseau who thought they were only good for child-bearing to montesquieu to thought women were not born inferior to men and deserved more rights.

what does deism mean and who were its main supporters?


Last edited by Jessica_Johnson on Mon Nov 14, 2011 9:18 pm; edited 1 time in total
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kara.england



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:51 pm

mine!

Deism is the belief that a rational God created the world and then left it to function. Deists believed that nature was rational, and therefore, religion must also be rational. They combined religion and reason. There were several deists. There was never an actual movement, but there were many deists. One was John Toland, who wrote Christianity Not Mysterious, which said that religion was a "natural and rational phenomenon." Voltaire was another deist. He believed that men did not have to read the Bible, but instead could just enjoy study nature.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was considered to be a radical. What were some of his more radical theories? Why did he have these jaded views?
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Hillary:)



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 9:32 pm

Dibs on Kara's...


Being the strange character Rousseau was, his life and past had alot to relate to his views of modern society. As an isolated genius who never felt comfortable with fellow philosophes, his own life was trouble and he could not form many close friendships. Although he had many children, he abandoned them. It's said that his own life reflected alot on his feelings about the world and how he hated it!. In "Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences", he announced his theory of how the process of civilization and the Enlightenment had corrupted human nature. Not only did Rosseau blame civilization, he claimed that it also had to do with the uneven distibution of property, in his "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality". Not only did he inspire the French Revolution, but also how unfavorable things were to women. Women were sought to go through child bearing and other chores, no rights. This got the following lady involved!!


Concidering Rousseau's feelings of modern society, Mary Wollstonecraft did not agree. What did she do to Rousseau and how did she feel about his opinions?


Last edited by Hillary:) on Mon Nov 14, 2011 9:53 pm; edited 1 time in total
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14hjsewell



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 9:48 pm

Mine!


Mary criticized him. She wrote an essay called A Vindication of the Rights of Women which completely opposed all of the ideas about women during the French Revolution. She accused Rousseau of pretty much trying to stop women from advancing in anything that they do. She believed that women should be equal to men and that women could help the progress of all humanity by getting educated and given liberties.



Why was Diesm so appealing to many people during the Age of Enlightenment? And what did the Diests want to prevent from happening in other religions?[i]
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MariahMoeyM



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 9:54 pm

dibbing sumi's question
Question: What was the importance of the Encyclopedia to the Enlightenment?
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MariahMoeyM



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PostSubject: oops    Mon Nov 14, 2011 9:56 pm

i mean dibbing karas
Question: What was the importance of the Encyclopedia to the Enlightenment?
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MariahMoeyM



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 10:01 pm

Deism was the embodiment of rationalism in religion, many people of the Enlightenment sought to explain religion through the eyes of reason and thats just what Deists did. Diests wished to explain religion and take away the mystisism in it perhaps to ensure themselves that it wasn't faith alone as Martin Luther claimed but instead by fact or reason alone that got them into heaven.
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nick13



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Mon Nov 14, 2011 10:20 pm

mine- The encyclapedia was essential because it spread enlightment out of france and was sent to thomas jefferson and ben franklin and a collective plea for freedom of expression.
what was the partition of poland and how did it effect poland?
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Molly.Swack



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Tue Nov 15, 2011 12:38 am

Minee.

MY QUESTION; There were many great philosophers during this time period; Voltaie, Montesquieu, Hume. Name one of them, and describe some of their greatest works and contributions.
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Molly.Swack



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Tue Nov 15, 2011 12:43 am

The Partition of Poland showed that any country that didnt have a good monarchy, army, and bureacracy couldnt even keep up with the other European state systems. It also showed that the bigger powers in east Europe were ready to establish their own enemies, even if it cost them a weak state. There were actually several Partitions of Poland, including the ones in 1772, 1793, and 1795.
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Alexander Smith



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Tue Nov 15, 2011 9:23 am


The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years. The partitions were perpetrated by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the countries' lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures.

Question: Explain what some of the major intellectual changes that led to the Enlightenment?


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C_Wezzy Khounxay



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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 17 Discussion Question    Tue Nov 15, 2011 9:58 am

Mine.

The Age of Enlightenment was a time in which reason was advocated as the legitimacy of authority. It was also centered around the aspiration of individuals to exert more self-governance. The Enlightenment was strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and the by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation. Modernism describes a series of reforming cultural movements in art and architecture, music, literature and the applied arts. The Enlightenment is held to be the source of critical ideas, such as freedom, democracy and reason as primary values of society.

What major nation was affected by the Enlightenment the most, and why?
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